19 D


A very early contribution to intactivism comes from the 12th century Jewish scholar Moses Maimonides who wrote The Guide for the Perplexed, Dover Publications, N.Y. His words about the weakening, sexually diminishing effect of circumcision prove to be an essential observation and foundation for our present day work. This was one of the first books I purchased. It’s copyright date is 1954. The first translation into English was in 1904.

1947 – Felix Bryk authored the book Sex and Circumcision: A Study of Phallic Worship and Mutilation in Men and Women, Brandon House.

1949 – Joseph Lewis authored an angry tirade against genital cutting – In The Name of Humanity, Eugenics Publishing Co., N.Y.

1949 – Douglas Gairdner’s article “The Fate of the Foreskin – A Study of Circumcision” was published in the British Medical Journal, leading to a rapid decline of infant circumcision rate in Great Britain.

1971 – The American Academy of Pediatrics made the official statement: “There are no valid medical indications for circumcision in the neonatal period.”

During the early 70’s Van Lewis and his brother protested circumcision on the streets in Florida and were arrested. http://www.intactamerica.org/vanlewis

1975 – The American Academy of Pediatrics re-stated “There is no absolute medical indication for routine circumcision of the newborn.” (With much explanation of details.)

1975 – Kenneth Hopkins and Carole Anne Babyak began lobbying people about circumcision with informal discussions in Southern California. They first went “Public” at the university of California, Santa Barbara, in the summer of 1979 when they handed out an information sheet at an anthropological speech on female circumcision by a professor.

1975 – Suzanne Arms’ book Immaculate Deception, Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, MA. – highly questioning of the hospital/medical system in its treatment of parents and babies during birth, thus implementing many changes in how we view childbirth.

1976 – Dr. Frederick Leboyer’s book Birth Without Violence, Alfred A. Knopf., N.Y., awakened the world’s awareness to the feelings and needs of infants.

1976 – Roger Saquet wrote “Circumcision in Social Perspective”, published in Country Lady’s Daybook

1977 – Joseph Chilton Pearce’s book Magical Child, E.P. Dutton, N.Y. – another inspiring book educating the public on infant awareness including strong denunciation of infant genital cutting

Jeannine Parvati Baker’s books, including Prenatal Yoga, Conscious Conception, Hygieia, Freestone Publishing Co., and many other writings during the 70’s and 80’s all contributed to our awareness of infants’ needs and possibilities of alternative lifestyles. http://marcyaxness.com/parenting-for-peace/jeannine-parvati-baker-65/ , http://wisewomanwayofbirth.com/remembering-jeanine-parvati-baker/ , https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jeannine_Parvati_Baker

Elizabeth Noble’s books and writings, including The Joy of Being a Boy, Primal Connections, Simon & Schuster, 1993 and many others (Primal Connections, 1993, Childbirth With Insight, 1983) were invaluable to intactivism.

Bud Berkeley – a San Francisco gay rights activist – published several articles during the 70’s and 80’s.

1977 – The American Academy of Pediatrics again stated “There are no medical indications for routine circumcisions, and the procedure cannot be considered an essential components of health care.”

1977 – Constance Bean’s book, Labor and Delivery: An Observer’s Diary, Doubleday & Co., N.Y., included a chapter “The Circ Room”(now available on the Peaceful Beginnings website).. Her observations are immensely disturbing and eye opening.

1977 – Paul Zimmer’s article “Modern Ritualistic Surgery – A Layman’s View of Nonritual Neonatal Circumcision”, was published in Clinical Pediatrics.

1977 – Rosemary Romberg’s 3rd son was born at home in Thousand Oaks, CA. The baby’s circumcision caused Ms. Romberg intense emotional distress and regret. Her research began during the months that followed.

1978 – Sylvia Topp’s article “Why Not to Circumcise Your Baby Boy” was published in Mothering Magazine.

Jeffrey R. Wood – founded INTACT Educational Foundation, worked together via correspondence with Rosemary Romberg and wrote several articles including “The Circumcision Controversy” during the late 70’s and 80’s

1979 – The American Academy of Pediatrics slightly backpedaled their stance by issuing the statement “Newborn circumcision has potential medical benefits and advantages as well as disadvantages and risks. When circumcision is being considered, the benefits and risks should be explained to the parents and informed consent obtained.”

1979 – Kenneth Hopkins and Carole Anne Babyak first went “public” with their opposition to circumcision at the University of California, Santa Barbara, by handing out an information sheet at an anthropological speech on female circumcision by a professor

1979 – Publication of Nicholas Carter’s book, Routine Circumcision: The Tragic Myth, Londinium Press, London, England.

1979 – Marilyn Milos, as a nursing student, witnessed an infant undergoing circumcision. What she observed of the infant’s reaction was so upsetting that it changed her life forever. Her organization, NOCIRC, was founded in 1985, shortly after she was forced to resign from the hospital where she worked because she was giving new parents accurate information about circumcision before they signed a consent form, and she has been one of the leading voices in intactivism ever since.

1980 – Publication of Edward Wallerstein’s book, Circumcision: An American Health Fallacy, Springer Publishing Co.

1980-1981 – Kenneth Hopkins and Carole Babyak did protests in the summer of 1980 & winter 1981 in the Northern California cities of Arcata, Eureka, San Francisco and Sacramento. The Associated Press and UPI carried the story and photos. https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=105479829609180&set=pb.100004414898074.-2207520000.1470254979.&type=3&theater

Summer of 1981 – NBC Magazine interviewed and then televised “The Casual Cut” feature on their show. Intactivists interviewed included Marilyn Milos RN, Rosemary Romberg, Dr. Paul Fleiss, and Edward Wallerstein.

December of 1981 – The Saturday Evening Post featured an article by Cory Servaas, M.D. “Groups Conclude: ‘Routine Circumcision Not Recommended'” This featured a graphic picture series of a baby undergoing circumcision. The slides were later sold to Rosemary Romberg who duplicated them in bulk and sold them at cost to childbirth educators and other interested people. They are now shown on line on the Peaceful Beginnings website as “One Baby’s Experience.” https://peacefulbeginningsrosemary.wordpress.com/home/babys-experience/

1984 – Publication of Anne Brigg’s book, Circumcision: What Every Parent Should Know, Birth and Parenting Publications, Earlysville, VA.

1983 – Rosemary Romberg resigned from Wood’s Intact Educational Foundation and began Peaceful Beginnings. At the time it consisted of instructional slides and written material concerning circumcision and other pregnancy, birth and infancy related issues. Today it continues as an on line website. http://peacefulbeginningsrosemary.wordpress.com.

1983 – Production of the film “The Circumcision Question” by Perennial Education, Highland Park, IL.

1983 – Production of the film “A Matter of Choice” by Orion Express, Sausalito, CA.

1984 – The AAP’s pamphlet on intact care stated:
“The function of the foreskin and the glans at birth is delicate and easily irritated by urine and feces. The foreskin shields the glans. With circumcision this protection is lost. In such cases, the glans and especially the urinary opening (meatus) may become irritated or infected, causing ulcers, meatitis (inflammation of the meatus) and meatal stenosis (a narrowing of the urinary opening.) Such problems virtually never occur in uncircumcised penises. The foreskin protects the glans throughout life.
In 1990 – The AAP removed the above with no explanation.

1985 – Publication of Rosemary Romberg’s book Circumcision: The Painful Dilemma, Bergin and Garvey, S. Hadley, MA.

1986 – Kenneth Hopkins legally changed his name to Brother K as an expression of rejecting his birth name which he associated with his hospital circumcision.

1989 – First NOCIRC Symposium was held in Anaheim, CA.

1989 – N.O.R.M. (National Organization for Restoring Men”) was founded by R. Wayne Griffiths and Tim Hammond. http://norm.org/

1990 – Publication of Billy Ray Boyd’s book Circumcision: What it Does, Taterhill Press, San Francisco, CA.

1992 – Second NOCIRC Symposium was held in San Francisco, CA.

1992 – Publication of Jim Bigelow’s book The Joy of Uncircumcising, Hourglass Publishing, Pacific Grove, CA.

1992 – Publication of Thomas J. Ritter, M.D.’s book Say No to Circumcision!, Hourglass Publishing.

1992 – Publication of Thomas J. Ritter, M.D. and George C. Denniston, M.D.’s book Doctors Re-Examine Circumcision, Third Millennium Publishing Co., Seattle, WA.

1992 – Publication of Tim Hammond’s book Male Circumcision in America, Violating Human Rights

1993 – Publication of Bud Berkeley’s book, Foreskin, A Closer Look

1993 – Publication of Circumcision: The Rest of the Story, Peggy O’Mara, ed. 1993. Mothering Magazine, Santa Fe, NM

1994 – Publication of To Mutilate in the Name of Jehovah or Allah: Legitimization of Male and Female Circumcision, Sami A. Aldeeb. NOHARMM, San Francisco, CA

1994 – Third International Symposium on Circumcision was held in College Park, Maryland.

1996 – American Cancer society states in a letter that circumcision is not a factor in penile, prostate or cervical cancer http://www.cirp.org/library/statements/letters /1996-02_ACS/

1996 – Fourth International Symposium on Sexual Mutilation was held in Lausanne, Switzerland.

1997 – The American Academy of Pediatrics issued the following statement: “It is emphasized that newborn circumcision is an elective procedure to be performed at the request of the parents when the infant is physiologically and clinically stable. Because of the lack of hard scientific data, a firm recommendation for appropriate method of pain control was not provided. The AAP has recently convened a task force to review new information available since the writing of the Guidelines with the goal of making specific recommendations on this issue.”

1997 – Female Genital Cutting was Outlawed in the United States.

1997 – Female genital mutilation (even a tiny, “ceremonial” nick) was made illegal in the United States. (Males were left unprotected by legislation.)

1997 – Publication of Ronald Goldman’s book Circumcision: The Hidden Trauma, Vanguard Publications, Boston, MA.

1997 – Publication of Sexual Mutilations: A Human Tragedy, George C. Denniston and Marilyn Fayre Milos, eds. Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Sexual Mutilations, Lausanne, Switzerland, 1996. Plenum Publishers.

1998 – Fifth International Symposium on Circumcision and Genital Integrity was held in Oxford, England.

1998 – Hugh Young published the first of The Intactivism Pages, http://www.circumstitions.com, a comprehensive compilation of the case for leaving babies of all sexes intact, featuring lists of foreskin functions, bad reasons to cut, intact celebrities, etc.

1998 – Publication of Billy Ray Boyd’s books Circumcision Exposed, The Crossing Press, Freedom, CA and “Circumcision: What it Does”, Tatterhill Press, San Francisco, CA.

1998 – Publication of Ronald Goldman’s book Questioning Circumcision: A Jewish Perspective, Circumcision Resource Center, Boston, MA.

1999 – Publication of Male and Female Circumcision: Medical, Legal, and Ethical Considerations in Pediatric Practice, George C. Denniston, Frederick Mansfield Hodges, Marilyn Fayre Milos, eds. Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on Sexual Mutilations, Oxford, UK, August 5-7, 1998. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.

2000 – Sixth International Symposium on Circumcision and Genital Integrity was held in Sydney, Australia.

2000 – Publication of David L. Gollaher’s book Circumcision: A History of the World’s Most Controversial Surgery, Vanguard Publications, Boston, MA.

2000 – Publication of Sweet Dreams: A Pediatricians Secrets for Your Child’s Good Night’s Sleep by Paul M. Fleiss, MD, MPH, FAAP with Frederick M. Hodges, DPhil (Oxon), Lowell House

2000 – Publication of As Nature Made Him: The Boy Who Was Raised As a Girl, by John Colapinto, HarperCollins Publishers Inc., NY.

2001 – Publication of Doctors Re-examine Circumcision, 3rd edition, Thomas J. Ritter, M.D. and George C. Denniston, M.D., Third Millennium Publishing Co., Mountville, PA.

2001 – Publication of Understanding Circumcision: A Multi-Disciplinary Approach to a Multi-Dimensional Problem, George C. Denniston, Frederick Mansfield Hodges, Marilyn Fayre Milos, eds. Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Genital Integrity, Sydney, Australia, December 7-9, 2000. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.

2002 – Seventh International Symposium on Circumcision, Human Rights and Modern Society was held in Washington, D.C.

2002 – Publication of Paul M. Fleiss, M.D. and Frederick M. Hodges, D.Phil’s book What Your Doctor May Not Tell You About Circumcision, Warner Books, Inc., N.Y.

2004 – Eighth International symposium on Circumcision and Human Rights was held in Padua, Italy.

2004 – Publication of Flesh and Blood: Perspectives on the Problem of Circumcision in Contemporary Society, George C. Denniston, Frederick Mansfield Hodges, Marilyn Fayre Milos, eds. Proceedings of the Seventh International Symposium on Human Rights and Modern Society, Washington, DC, USA, April 4-7, 2002. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers

2005 – Production of Penn & Teller: Bullshit! Circumcision (2005) [29:39] an in depth look …
http://www.liveleak.com/view?i=d7c_1347664329 LiveLeak.com – Penn & Teller: Circumcision is BULLSH*T! www.liveleak.com/view?i=416_1218124584

2005 – Publication of Leonard Glick’s book Marked in Your Flesh: Circumcision from Ancient Judea to Modern America, Oxford University Press.

2005 – The Peaceful Parenting Network was first established by Danelle Frisbie and a few fellow professors to increase awareness and educate on baby/child-friendly ways of parenting and living (which of course includes genital autonomy); The DrMomma.org site came not long after merely as a way to share information that we’d previously always been emailing to interested persons and students (we taught workshops at the time).

April 2005 – magicians Penn and Teller produced their film “Circumcision is Bullshit.”

2006 – Ninth International Symposium on Circumcision, Genital Integrity and Human Rights was held in Seattle, Washington.

2006 – Publication of Bodily Integrity and the Politics of Circumcision: Culture, Controversy, and Change, George C. Denniston, Frederick Mansfield Hodges, Marilyn Fayre Milos, eds. Proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium on Circumcision and Human Rights: An Anthropological, Medical, Legal, and Ethical Analysis, Padua Italy, September 2-4, 2004. Springer

2006 – Publication of A Surgical Temptation: The Demonization of the Foreskin & the Rise of Circumcision in Britain, Robert Darby. University of Chicago Press.

2007 – Production of CUT: Slicing Through the Myths, by Elihahu Ungar-Sargon https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VkBsrBHpbDs

2008 – Tenth International Symposium on Circumcision, Genital Integrity and Human Rights was held in Staffordshire, U.K.

2008 – Saving Our Sons was founded by Danelle Frisbie as an intact-specific educational effort.

2008 – Intact America was founded.

2009 – Peter Keay started Little Images to research and work towards ending the genital cutting of minors, specifically within Christian communities. LittleImages.org

2010 – Elevenths International Symposium on Circumcision, Genital Integrity and Human Rights was held in Berkeley, CA.

2010 – Glen Callender founds the Canadian Foreskin Awareness Project (CAN-FAP)

2010 – 2010 – “Bloodstained Man in London” Richard Duncker introduced the idea of male protesters wearing white painters’ overalls, marked with red crotches, hence making his wound visible to the world. Brother K conceived the name “Bloodstained Men” and wore the suit for the first time in March 2010.

2010 – The INTACT Network was established as a grassroots effort to duplicate and disseminate efforts at the local level by advocates across the board.

2010 – Publication of Lisa Braver Moss’ book The Measure of His Grief.

2010 – The WHOLE Network was founded by Lauren Jenks soon after having her son. She dreamed of an organization dedicated to providing accurate information about circumcision and proper intact care. TWN is now fueled by a team of directors who supply information to both medical professionals and the general public, both in the United States and abroad.

2011 – Production of the film An Elephant in the Hospital https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ceht-3xu84I by Ryan McAllister

2012 – Twelfth International Symposium on Law, Genital Integrity and Human Rights was held in Helsinki, Finland.

2012 – American Academy of Pediatrics back-pedaled on its pronouncement on the non-necessity of circumcision, insisting that it has “some benefits.” “Evaluation of current evidence indicates that the health benefits of newborn male circumcision outweigh the risks and that the procedure’s benefits justify access to this procedure for families who choose it. Parents ultimately should decide whether circumcision is in the best interests of their male child. They will need to weigh medical information in the context of their own religious, ethical, and cultural beliefs and practices. The medical benefits alone may not outweigh these other considerations for individual families.”
The 2012 statement has received an extraordinary level of critical comment. The AAP’s position on male circumcision is markedly different from the positions of other medical societies.
The Circumcision Reference Library believes that the critical comment should be published along with the statements and that the public should read the critical comment before drawing any conclusions about the contents of the Circumcision Policy Statement and its supporting Male Circumcision statement.
Staff. (2012) Commentary on American Academy of Pediatrics 2012 Circumcision Policy Statement. Doctors Opposing Circumcision. Seattle.
Young H. (2012) Comment. The Intactivism Pages. New Zealand.
Svoboda JS. Van Howe RS. Out of step: fatal flaws in the latest AAP policy report on neonatal circumcision. J Med Ethics 2013;00:1–8. doi:10.1136/medethics-2013-101346. Published on line ahead of print
Frisch M, Aigrain Y, Barauskas V, et al. Cultural bias in the AAP’s 2012 technical report and policy statement on male circumcision. Pediatrics 2013;131(4):1-5. doi:10.1542/peds.2012-2896 Published on line ahead of print

2012 – Jonathon Conte brought the concept of men wearing “blood-stained” white pants to the United States at the protest of the AAP conference in New Orleans. Brother K morphed this concept into his current “Bloodstained men and their Friends” as it exists now in the U.S.
http://www.bloodstainedmen.com/ …(More information about Bloodstained Men https://www.facebook.com/richard.carver.779/posts/547857055371453 ) the first Blood Stained Men protest was held in the United States. James Loewen photographed & videoed the spectacle, and the shock of attendees at the AAP convention. https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=131826253641204&set=oa.446304585417033&type=3&theater

2014 – Thirteenth International Symposium Genital Autonomy and Human Rights was held in Boulder, Colorado.

2014 – Your Whole Baby was founded by Jennifer Williams to provide gentle education on the lifelong harms of circumcision as well as information on the functions and proper care of the foreskin in an effort to end infant genital cutting. YourWholeBaby.org.

2014 – Tim Hammond directed and produced Circumcision: Whose Body, Whose Rights? – Circumcision Ethics … https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8GmIQH-Dujs
2014 – Publication of Lindsay R. Watson’s book Unspeakable Mutilations – Men Do Complain.

2015 – Publication of Lisa Braver Moss and Rebecca Wald’s book Celebrating Brit Shalom.

2015 – Publication of Samuel M. Carnes’ book The Foreskin and Why You Should Keep It.

May 2018 – The 15th Genital Integrity symposium was held at the Kabuki Hotel in San Francisco, U.S.

September 2016 – the 14th Genital Integrity symposium was held at Keele University in England.

2018 – Brendan Marotta produced the film “American Circumcision”

2018 – Eric Clopper produced the film “Sex and Circumcision: An American Love Story.”

2018 – The state of California (U.S),. condemned surgery for intersex children.

Chapter 19     19 B     19 C